Writing is a form of communication. With all the text abbreviations, emoji’s, gifs, lack of grammar taught in schools, and a general decrease in people reading, seeing the written language is not as common as it used to be. Improper grammar and punctuation contribute to the degradation of the language, as well as confusion in meaning. If a book is full of typos, punctuation, and grammar mistakes, odds are it won’t sell well, and it will teach the readers incorrect grammar and punctuation. And as much of the meaning of the story will be lost in poor sentence structure and flow, it may even turn people off reading. It’s like a chair made with faulty glue. Sit in it, and it falls apart.
I read many Kindle books, and always start with the free sample chapters. Many of the indie books aren’t edited, because editors can be expensive. As a result, some are so full of typos¸ punctuation errors¸ and misused words that I can’t continue, and delete the sample. Ideally, a story should be professionally edited. But there are ways to improve your story that don’t cost anything.
If you can’t afford an editor, the first step in your process should be to run your story by as many beta readers as possible and consider their feedback carefully. A beta reader is a person who reads a work before it’s published, to mark errors and suggest improvements, typically without receiving payment. There are different kinds of beta readers; subject matter experts, people who look for character development, people who enjoy reading, etc. You can find beta readers among your friends, on social media, at your local library, or book clubs and writing groups.
The second step could be to find an editing buddy. This isn’t always possible, so it’s important to study your craft seriously, to maximize the quality of your work.
Recently an author’s rep DM’d me on twitter and offered me a free copy of their book in exchange for a review. Before accepting, I downloaded sample chapters of the book and was dismayed at how unclear and convoluted the writing was. I checked the reviews, of which there were many, mostly good, and saw only one that mentioned this lack of clarity. This could be due to no beta readers, beta readers who gushed over the work, or poor editing. Or perhaps the author wouldn’t take constructive criticism. There was a typo in the first paragraph, and in the first five pages many formatting gaps, extra words that should have been deleted, and words missing. So I suspect there was no proofreading either. And possibly it hadn’t been edited after all. I declined the offer.
Reviews on your own work will require Marketing, which is a topic for another day.
Study your craft
Learn your punctuation and grammar, google spelling you’re not sure of, listen to and act on your beta readers’ feedback, and above all proofread your work numerous times. When you’ve done the last proofread, wait a week and then do it again. Of course, there are exceptions. Some poorly written books do very well, but it’s like winning the lottery. Better to stack your odds by writing well. Your reputation and brand as a writer depend on it, especially for the first book, as shoddy writing can derail a career.
Read your story out loud. Often when I’m finished with a story, it doesn’t seem quite right, but I can’t tell what’s wrong. Then I remember to read it out loud. It’s amazing how this helps you identify stiff dialogue.
“Please hold still while I brush your hair, Melissa. Yes, Melissa, I know that it hurts you. It is a tangled mess.” Vs. “Hold still, Sweetheart, and I’ll brush your hair as gently as I can.”
Awkward sentences are sentences where the phrases are out of order. e.g. Often when I’m finished with a story, I can’t tell what’s wrong, but it doesn’t seem quite right. Not only is that sentence awkward, but the most important word, wrong, is in the middle. The most important word is the essence of the sentence. Putting it at the end emphasizes it, and it sticks in the reader’s mind. Sentences don’t always end easily with the most important word. Sometimes a writer will leave it, but when it’s required, will sometimes restructure a sentence so that the most important word is at the end.
I often try the phrases of a sentence in different orders to find the most effective one. That sentence took me five tries to write.
Who to write for yourself
Not everyone will get your work, and that’s alright. Some will. Trends are fleeting. What’s popular today will be cliché by the time you finish your book. Start your own trend.
We absorb the craft by reading. Read everything. Work that has been professionally edited will show you how to write, work that has not will show you how not to write. Learning grammar and punctuation will help you know the difference.
Practice proper grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure until it becomes a habit. I recommend starting with your second draft. This will save a lot of time in editing, and make it easier on your beta readers.
Don’t trust Spellcheck. It’s wrong half the time and doesn’t even know the difference between its (possessive), and it’s (contraction of it is.) And I is not possessive. I’m seeing and hearing this more and more. There is no such word as I’s.
No> This is I’s pet peeve.
Yes> This is my pet peeve.
No> Harry’s and I’s wedding went off without a hitch.
Yes> Harry’s and my wedding went off without a hitch.
No> Tiffany’s and I’s vacation was ruined by a hurricane.
Yes> Tiffany’s and my vacation was ruined by a hurricane.
“But,” a small voice from the audience pipes up, “I can’t afford or understand those complicated books on grammar and punctuation.”
I try to see the speaker, but offstage is only darkness. “Many people have trouble punctuating dialogue,” I reply. “But you can download a kindle sample of one of Jim Butcher’s or Stephen King’s books, and study how they do it, and it won’t cost you a cent.” Or, you could check out books on writing at your local library. Your librarian would be overjoyed to see you.
Do research your stories. Details enrich a story, and research can also give you ideas that will improve the rest of your story. For my own, I’ve researched Far Eastern religions, dates of inventions, and watched YouTube videos. When writing a piece about a ship, I was lucky enough to speak to a real sailor. He told me that when he’s reading, he wants to feel the ocean spray on his face. Details give verisimilitude, the appearance of being true or real. So if you know anyone who has experience with the nitty gritty of your story, talk to them!
Structure your sentences, so the action is written in chronological order. This helps the story flow easily. This applies to sentence structure, not timelines, which can be every which way.
The following aren’t great examples, but they’ll give you the idea.
No > He saw the shooter, before ducking the bullet.
(Verb tenses are important here as ducking is present tense, therefore the action is ongoing. In the next example, ducked is past tense, the action occurs, and is over; the same way it happens in real life.)
Yes > He saw the shooter and ducked the bullet.
No > He sipped his coffee, before looking at his watch, which showed 9:00 a.m.
Yes >He checked his watch, which showed 9:00 a.m., and then sipped his coffee.
(Even time is tricky. I had to google how to write it. Three times!)
Beware the word before!
Do not wallow in your world. I was reading a sample of a thriller with a fascinating premise. But even after two chapters, the author hadn’t gotten to any action; they kept going on and on about the Main Character’s (MC) history, and intricate details of the law, and police procedure. Worse, the MC was doing nothing but complain. Even though I really wanted to find out what happened, I couldn’t take anymore and deleted it. Such information should be given in the body of the story, as it’s needed.
When introducing a new thing or idea that is not widely known, and has a specific name, include a description. I once used the word pseudopod in a story. I wasn’t trying to show off my vocabulary or impress anyone with big words—something you should always ask yourself when tempted to use a fifty cent word—it was the exact word I needed, and I thought everyone knew what a pseudopod was. Turns out, they don’t. So I had to write it as; No yellow pseudopod snaked out to wrap itself around his throat …
For a story to be realistic, a character’s actions must be justified, even if only in the character’s mind. E.g., if a person is killing, they must have a reason. If the reason is evident—if they’re killing zombies, or the enemy, or animals for food—there’s no need to explain. But if the story hinges on the killing, e.g. the MC is killing people with the generalized explanation that it’s because they’re causing trouble, and the trouble isn’t evident, the writer must give their reasons. If a scout ship lands on a new planet and one of the crew starts popping off the native creatures because they’re stirring up trouble, but no trouble is evident or explained, then you must give the crew member’s motivation for doing it. E.g.. they’re (non-gender pronoun) crazy, they’re testing their weapons, they like to kill things, they perceive the creatures as a threat to humans.
Finally, enjoy your work, and be patient.
Lord of the Rings took Tolkien twelve years to write.
Louise Sorensen has been taking writing courses, and workshops with a retired Literature and Theatre professor, for twenty years. Her short stories have been published in anthologies, Just a Minor Malfunction Magazine, and Cirsova Magazine. Duel Visions, a SciFi, Fantasy, Horror Anthology she co-wrote with author Misha Burnett, was published February 14, 2019, and is available on Amazon.
You can find her on Twitter as @louise3anne
Most writers struggle with the dreaded Writer’s Block—but I’ve never had this problem. Here are some of the tricks I use to keep the words flowing. Hopefully, they will help you too!
Reading really is the most important tool for becoming a better writer. With all of the formats available (print, eBook, audio, dramatization, graphic novels), there’s a storytelling format to fit everyone’s lifestyle. Be sure to read widely, not just within your own genre, as this will prevent you from accidentally emulating other authors’ styles. Read critically. What do you think an author has done well? What about their methods bother you? What would you do differently? You can learn from books you don’t enjoy as much as from those you love.
Try: Setting a limit (1 chapter or half-an-hour), and then sit down to write. See how your creative juices are jogged by imbibing stories.
Planning prevents you from stalling. Different types of writers prefer to be more concrete or more exploratory; some don’t anchor their outline until revisions. Whenever you choose to implement them, guidelines will help keep you on track and show the way forward when you get stuck. Figure out the answers to these basic questions: What do your characters want? What experiences will make them grow? What is their end-goal?
Try: Prepare point-form goals for each chapter (such as a key action, mood, or revelation); write a scene for each point.
Community builds your enthusiasm for the project, from gleaning insight into other writers’ processes, to trouble-shooting sticky points in your WIP. Your fellow writers provide fresh perspectives and may highlight inconsistencies you hadn’t noticed.
Try: Joining a critique group, forum, or exchanging work with beta readers. Send them guidelines for what kind of feedback you’re seeking.
Prompts can get you out of a rut. They can push you to explore genres, personas, or techniques you don’t typically use in your projects. They can help you discover backstory or motivations, and think outside the box. Find prompts online, in exercise books, or in writing courses. Consider prompts that test your weaknesses: unusual topics, dialogue, plot device, character, genre, time period, or circumstance.
Try: Working in short story formats; when the work is shorter, you can explore themes or ideas that you couldn’t sustain over a full-length book. You may even be able to polish and submit these exploratory works.
Change it up! If you’re having difficulty concentrating, getting up and stretching re-oxygenates your brain. Determine your ideal writing environment for lighting, hydration, comfort, ambient sound, etc. If you feel stagnant, try writing in a new location.
Try: Certain writing apps set reminders, rewards, or penalties; if you need an extra boost to hit your goals, consider Write-O-Meter, DabbleWriter, or Write Or Die.
Remember, every writer has a different pace and process. Set attainable and sustainable goals. You will feel much more productive hitting smaller regular goals that if you burn out writing six-thousand words for three days straight and then nothing for six months. Keep experimenting and find your sweet spot. After all, your story won’t write itself!
As a queer author focused on inclusive worldbuilding, Astra Crompton seeks to write complex characters whose identities, sexualities and motivations span across a nuanced spectrum. She has published short stories in anthologies including Blood Moon Rising and Anthology for a Green Planet, and for the tabletop RPG game Unity. She also has a number of self-published short stories, graphic novels, and a novel available. You can find her work at www.astracrompton.com
An anecdote, if you will.
In my late teens, I attended my first writing class. We were an eclectic group. Fiction writers. Poets. Even a few journalism enthusiasts. As an ice breaker, the teacher asked us to speak about our favourite books. I groaned. I always hated this question. I never knew how to answer. Could I rank a Hemingway above a Wilde? A Chekov above a Poe? How could I possibly decide?
The class went around, dropping names. All the big shots emerged. Shakespeare. Tolkien. King. Plath. This went on until we landed on a poet, a lanky boy in black who declared, “I don’t have a favourite book. I don’t read. I don’t want anything influencing my style.”
My first reaction was to stare. My second was to cry blasphemy. A writer who does not read? The idea was as foreign to me as a pianist who does not listen to music. I might have recoiled. I might have made a face. His answer lit a fire in me. When it was my turn to speak, I stood and said, with equal vehemence, “I don’t have a favourite book either, because I read everything.” I said this as though I had something to prove.
But why did I have such a reaction? Why did I feel such a drawing desire to rebut? In that moment, I believed, with every ounce of my being, that my answer was more correct than his. That a writer should always read, and not just read, but read widely.
The Well of Knowledge
One might claim that a writer does not need to read to write. This is true. Writing, after all, is merely a form of communication, and everyone knows, to some degree, how to communicate. My poet classmate, who did not read, still knew how to write. He understood sentences, and structure, and had creative ideas.
Yet writing does not happen in isolation. Not entirely, anyway.
Every piece of contemporary writing is a result of thousands of years of literary history—traditions that have percolated into our collective consciousness over time. Every genre is a plethora of established archetypes, patterns, and expectations. Writing itself is a transformative craft, constantly evolving, built on top of and alongside the ideas, styles, techniques, and successes of our writing peers and predecessors.
And herein lies my answer:
I read widely because I want to be influenced. Yes, I can write without reading, but to do so is to refuse the deep wells of knowledge sitting in my very backyard.
Learning from the Field
For writers, reading is akin to gaining field experience. The wider you read, the broader your horizons, and the better you understand your craft. Reading allows us to learn what has been done, what has worked, and, just as importantly, what has not worked. Better yet, it allows us to witness tools, techniques, and methods in action.
See, every literary genre has areas in which they excel. Prose does not read like a play does not read like poetry. Prose might prioritize narrative arc over imagery, whereas poetry might do the opposite. I am predominately a science-fiction fantasy novel writer. Yet every time I venture into genres outside my own, I find a wealth of transferable skills to add to my writing arsenal.
Graphic novels, for example, taught me how to better show. Subtle changes in lighting, angle, and colour can flavour a scene. A smile in sunshine feels different than a smile in the rain. I do not have pictures in my novels, but I have description, and that is a close enough approximation.
Poetry, on the other hand, made me more aware of connotations. An eternity of symbolism and cultural significance stands behind the word “rose.” This has made me more careful of my word choices in general.
And so on and so forth.
Let’s go back to that classroom.
It was not as though I did not understand my poetic classmate’s concerns. Originality is highly emphasized in all creative fields.
But what is originality anyway?
I would argue that originality is not so much invention than transformation. It does not spring from nothing. Rather, originality happens in reaction to pre-established norms. Fresh genres don’t pop out of nowhere. They are derived from existing ones. New voices don’t arise from the void. They counter traditional ones. To be original, you must first learn what is not original, per se.
Once you know of what is out there, you can change it. You can play, experiment, chop things up and put it back together in fascinating ways. Genre fusion, mixing and matching, purposeful deviations in structure and narrative—these are but a few examples of what you can try. See that familiar cliché? Invert it. That well-crafted sentence? Break it up. That hero’s journey? Apply it to contemporary romance instead.
To quote Dr. Seuss, “The more you know, the more places you’ll go.” If you’re worried about originality, don’t be. Reading widely can inspire originality rather than detracts from it.
Reading to Write
So, how does one begin to read widely? And how does one reap its benefits without writing hundred-page dissertations on craft? There is a lot out there, and our time is finite. No one wants to sift through every book in history on the off chance of finding a cool turn of phrase.
One of the safest ways to branch out is to mix the familiar with the unfamiliar. Take a trope, setting, or archetype you enjoy and seek it elsewhere. Enjoy romance novels? Try romance poetry. Enjoy strong voices in fiction? Seek strong voices in memoir. See how they differ. See how they are familiar. See where they pull, where they push, and how.
Great. Now, get active. Ask questions. When we read as a writers, we are not simply consuming a product, but actively considering its creation. Look for those “aha” moments where your brain snags, where you find yourself reading the same passage over and over again. These are moments where something resonated. Then, consider: Why did I react the way I did? How did the writing evoke such a reaction? Do I want that for my own writing? How can I work that into my own writing?
And when you have those “oh no” moments (which you certainly will), ask yourself similar questions: Why didn’t I like this? What happened? How can I avoid making the same mistakes? A negative experience, after all, is just as important as a positive one when it comes to learning.
An analogy, if you will.
You are in a workshop. Here is your project. Here are your tools. You chip away at your project using your tools. You become excellent at it. Then, one day, a new wing springs forth with new projects and new tools. You stare at these projects. They are different than your own. You stare at these tools. They are new to you. Maybe you love this new wing! You find its projects fascinating! You’re excited about having new tools! Great! Or, maybe, you hate everything about it. You cover it up and refuse to set foot inside. This is fine too.
Because love or hate, you have a new wing at your disposal, to visit or ignore at will.
Reading widely adds more wings.
It never hurts to have more wings.
Let me finish by stressing this: You can be a good writer without reading widely. Reading widely is by no means a prerequisite for writing. If anything, it’s icing on top. It’s the optional reading you get at the end of each class for enrichment’s sake. This is simply to encourage you to explore. To give it a try, whatever it may be. To test new waters, and seek new tools. To try novel things. To stretch and bend and break some boundaries. To have some fun.
So read widely, write without fear.
You never know what you will find.
Like more authors, Jennifer Chen is a humanoid organism. She is usually found in front of an unfinished Word document, ingesting caffeinated drinks, and daydreaming. She enjoys writing so much she went ahead and got herself an MFA in creative writing from University of British Columbia for it.
Jennifer will read anything at least once, and then talk about it over the course of several social dinners. Of all the genres available, she most enjoys speculative fiction and magic realism.
An important step in my editing routine is this: rooting out repeated instances of characters' sighs, frowns, smiles, head nods, head shaking, and (yes!) long, steadying breaths before acting or speaking. Repetition is often a sign of flabby writing, and this particular kind has cropped up often enough in my own work to earn itself a nickname: the bobblehead syndrome.
Characters who are limited to just a handful of generic responses become less real and less relatable for the reader. In effect, the flabbier the writing, the flatter the characters are. Therefore, I've trained myself to think of vague emotional indicators as placeholders in a manuscript. They're acceptable in early drafts, but only until I can substitute a more detailed, more telling, and more authentic description of what the character is feeling inside, or how it appears to a point-of-view observer. Here are some examples from recent stories:
First draft: “I can see where this is going,” she said, frowning. “But I'm not going to break the law."
Edited: “I see.” Her lips and brows contracted as though pulled tight by the same string as her old-timey purse. “But don't think for one moment that I'll break the law to protect you."
(Frowns are so generic. This is a much more vivid and revealing description of her expression.)
First draft: He drew and expelled a long breath before speaking. “Well! It appears we are about to have a first contact situation.”
Edited: “Well!” he declared after a beat. “It appears we are about to have a first contact situation.”
(This character is simply buying time to process an unexpected development. Save the long breath for a high-stakes pivotal moment, such as when a character is about to commit perjury on the stand.)
First draft: She shook her head. “Absolutely not!”
Edited: "What? No! Absolutely not!"
(Unnecessary repetition here, a silent response followed by an identical verbal one. Check to see which one is more effective in the given situation, then go with it.)
Sometimes a simple frown or nod is a character's most authentic reaction. When it's not, I've found it helpful to have an "emotional thesaurus" on hand. Here's the recipe:
Collect any apt or well-worded character responses that you come across in your reading. Classify them according to the emotion being felt. Add your own original phrases to the list as well. (I've mined drafts of earlier stories for spot-on descriptions that came to me in moments of inspiration.) Then, while editing, dip into it for interesting emotional reactions that will strengthen your writing as they reveal the various dimensions of your characters. Your readers will appreciate it.
Arlene F. Marks
Arlene F. Marks took up writing at the age of 6 and is now helplessly addicted to it. Since retiring from the classroom, she has completely surrendered to her muse, authoring two multi-volume literacy programs and a writing manual, along with a great deal of imaginative fiction. Her current project is Sic Transit Terra, a series of space opera novels set at the turn of the 25th century that she describes as "Dynasty meets Star Trek with a side order of 24". Book 5, The Cockroach Crusade, will be coming out later this year from EDGE Publishing. Arlene lives and writes in the beautiful Georgian Bay area of Ontario.
Arlene's website: www.thewritersnest.ca
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Word Crafting is a blog to help writers strive for excellence. If you would like to be a guest blogger, pitch me an idea.